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Conceptual modeling represents a recent approach to creating knowledge. It has emerged in response to the computer revolution, which started in the middle of the 20th century.
Computers, in the meantime, have become a major knowledge media. Conceptual modeling provides an answer to the difficulties experienced throughout the development of computer applications and aims at creating effective, reasonably priced, and sharable knowledge about using computers in business. Moreover, it has become evident that conceptual modeling has the potential to exceed the boundaries of business and computer usage.
This state-of-the-art survey originates from the International Seminar on the Evolution of Conceptual Modeling, held in Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, in April 2008. The major objective of this seminar was to look into conceptual modeling from a historical perspective with a view towards the future of conceptual modeling and to achieve a better understanding of conceptual modeling issues in several different domains of discourse, going beyond individual (modeling) projects.
The book contains 14 chapters. These were carefully selected during two rounds of reviewing and improvement from 26 presentations at the seminar and are preceded by a detailed preface providing general insights into the field of conceptual modeling that are not necessarily discussed in any of the chapters but nevertheless aid in conceptualizing the inner structure and coherence of the field. The chapters are grouped into the following three thematic sections: the evolution of conceptual modeling techniques; the extension of conceptual modeling to a service-oriented, peer-to-peer, or Web context; and new directions for conceptual modeling.
Cell culture based research is important for our understanding of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. Using this approach, the previous decades have produced a wealth of mechanistic information in all areas of biomedical research. Such in vitro research, however, lacks the complexity of in vivo investigations, where many different cell types interact with each other in a normal, three-dimensional environment, with normal levels of cytokines and growth factors. Furthermore, complex human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes or chronic inflammation, can only be modeled in vivo. Due to its small size, its short reproduction time, and the possibility to introduce specific gene mutations, the mouse has become the favourite mammalian model organism to study in vivo function of genes during development and in disease. This book combines review articles on selected subjects presented at the symposium "Mouse as a Model Organism - From Animals to Cells", held in Rovaniemi, Finland, 2009. Among other topics, high-throughput phenotyping of mouse mutants, mouse phenotypes dependent on nature and nuture, and a spectrum of in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro methods to study cancer in mice are described. This book will give an excellent introduction to scientists interested in the use of mice as a model to understand complex biological questions in the post-genomic era. It will highlight the possibilities, but also discuss the current problems and shortcomings, to give a realistic view of the current state-of-art in this fascinating field of biomedical research.
China's rise, an increasing emphasis on international education benchmarking, and a global recognition of East Asian countries' success in this regard have brought the issue of Chinese education to the forefront of public consciousness. In particular, the concept of a "Chinese education model" is one that has sparked debate and quickly become a major focus of education research around the world, especially in light of regional achievements vis-Ã -vis university rankings, bibliometric indices, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and other such benchmarks. Chinese Education Models in a Global Age tackles this controversial issue head on by synthesizing a diversity of analyses from a world-class team of twenty-seven authors. It reveals that Chinese education models, which are present in many different geographic and institutional contexts, have an important influence on social and institutional norms as well as individual belief systems and behaviors in China and beyond. The first of its kind, this edited volume establishes a foundation for future research while providing a nuanced and tightly integrated compilation of differing perspectives on the role and impact of Chinese education models worldwide. It is essential reading for all scholars, policymakers, students, parents, and educators interested in the rising demographic and economic influence of people of Chinese descent on education around the world.
The central theme of the Bible's New Testament is God's love for you as an individual. This love was revealed through Christ's coming into the world and living among humankind, and through his dying on the cross and rising from the dead. By Christ's death, God offers you forgiveness for your sins, and by his resurrection, the promise of everlasting life. Christ died and rose again for the whole world, but for you to become a Christian is an individual matter. The only way to establish a personal relationship with Jesus Christ is to accept his offer of forgiveness and everlasting life. The following Scriptures show God's part and yours. Read each verse and believe it, for it is the Word of God speaking to you. God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (John 3:16) GOD'S LOVE IS REVEALED God loves you and all people. He wants to bless your life and make it full and complete. He offers you not only an abundant life here and now, but also a life that is eternal-- his very own life. All have sinned, and come short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23) HUMANS ARE SINFUL The saying, "Well, we are just human-- nobody is perfect," is biblically sound. When we acknowledge this truth, we can see our separation from God, for he is holy. SIN HAS A PENALTY The wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (Romans 6:23) To continue in sin will result in spiritual death, which is separation from God forever. The alternative is to personally receive God's free gift, which is pardon for sin and provision of life everlasting. CHRIST PAID THE PENALTY God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (Romans 5:8) You may think you must lead a "good" life and do charitable acts before God will love you. This is not true. God loves you even in your sin. He sent Christ to die in your place and to pay the penalty for your sin so that you can be reconciled to him. SALVATION IS A FREE GIFT! By grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. (Ephesians 2:8-9) Grace means undeserved favor. God graciously offers to you what you could never do for yourself. All you need to do is receive it. Believe with all your heart that Jesus Christ died to provide deliverance from your sins and to give you eternal life. WE MUST RECEIVE CHRIST As many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name. (John 1:12) When you receive Christ-- when you accept what he has done for you-- you become a child of God. Picture, if you will, Jesus Christ standing at the door of your life. Invite him in. He is waiting to be received into your life. God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (John 3:16) All have sinned, and come short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23) The wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (Romans 6:23) By grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. (Ephesians 2:8-9) As many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name. (John 1:12) God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (Romans 5:8) RECEIVE CHRIST NOW You can invite Jesus Christ into your life right now by praying to God something like the following: Dear Lord, I know that I am a sinner and that I need your forgiveness. I believe that Jesus Christ died in my place to pay the penalty for my sin and that he rose from the dead. I now invite Jesus to come into my life as my Savior. Thank you for making me your child. Help me learn to please you in every part of my life. GOD'S PROMISES FROM HIS WORD Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. (Romans 10:13) By your belief in Jesus as your Savior and because of God's grace, the following has taken place in your life: your sins were forgiven (Colossians 1:14); you became a child of God (John 1:12); you were made an heir to all of God's blessings (Romans 8:16-17); and you received everlasting life (1 John 5:12-13)! You became a Christian the moment you received Christ. Don't trust your feelings, for they will change. Take God at his Word and believe his promises. Review the above passages whenever doubts arise. You should be able to say with assurance, "I have received Christ. On the authority of God's Word, I have eternal life." MAY GOD GRANT YOU "ALL JOY AND PEACE IN BELIEVING." ROMANS 15:13
Using tools from mathematical kinetic theory and stochastic game theory, this work deals with the modeling of large complex systems in the applied sciences, particularly those comprised of several interacting individuals whose dynamics follow rules determined by some organized, or even "intelligent" ability. Traditionally, methods of mathematical kinetic theory have been applied to model the evolution of large systems of interacting classical or quantum particles. This book, on the other hand, examines the modeling of living systems as opposed to inert systems.
The author develops new mathematical methods and tools-hopefully a "new" mathematics-toward the modeling of living systems. Such tools need to be far more complex than those dealing with systems of inert matter. The first part of the book deals with deriving general evolution equations that can be customized to particular systems of interest in the applied sciences. The second part of the book deals with various models and applications.
The presentation unfolds using the following common approach in each chapter:
* Phenomenological interpretation of the physical system in the context of mathematical modeling
* Derivation of the mathematical model using methods from mathematical kinetic theory for active particles
* Simulations, parameter sensitivity analysis, and critical inspection of the derived model towards validation
* Overview of presented ideas to improve existing models, with special emphasis on applications
Specific topics covered include:
* Modeling of the competition between cells of an aggressive invasive agent and cells of the immune system
* Modeling of vehicular traffic flow
* Modeling of swarms and crowd dynamics in complex geometric environments
* Methodological aspects related to multiscale modeling of large systems viewed as interconnected subsystems
Modeling Complex Living Systems is a valuable resource for applied mathematicians, engineers, physicists, biologists, economists, and graduate students involved in modeling complex social systems and living matter in general.
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