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In the slightly more than thirty years since its formulation, the Hubbard model has become a central component of modern many-body physics. It provides a paradigm for strongly correlated, interacting electronic systems and offers insights not only into the general underlying mathematical structure of many-body systems but also into the experimental behavior of many novel electronic materials. In condensed matter physics, the Hubbard model represents the simplest theoret- ical framework for describing interacting electrons in a crystal lattice. Containing only two explicit parameters - the ratio ("Ujt") between the Coulomb repulsion and the kinetic energy of the electrons, and the filling (p) of the available electronic band - and one implicit parameter - the structure of the underlying lattice - it appears nonetheless capable of capturing behavior ranging from metallic to insulating and from magnetism to superconductivity. Introduced originally as a model of magnetism of transition met- als, the Hubbard model has seen a spectacular recent renaissance in connection with possible applications to high-Tc superconductivity, for which particular emphasis has been placed on the phase diagram of the two-dimensional variant of the model. In mathematical physics, the Hubbard model has also had an essential role. The solution by Lieb and Wu of the one-dimensional Hubbard model by Bethe Ansatz provided the stimulus for a broad and continuing effort to study "solvable" many-body models. In higher dimensions, there have been important but isolated exact results (e. g. , N agoaka's Theorem).
This essay is, first, a theoretical and historical study of some classical scientific ways of studying human being in the world. The more readily accessible and more commonly discussed "models" of being human were chosen for review here, but structuralism is included because I believe it will have ,the same impact in America as it has had in France, and I hope that American readers might be forewarned about what may be ideologically at stake before the technical, and fruitful, aspects of the movement become an academic fad in the United States. The subjects included are mainline experimental psychology from Wundt to Skinner, with its relatively shortlived functionalist and Watsonian-behaviorist formulations; holistic psychology from Brentano through Stumpf, Husserl, and Goldstein to Maslow, Rogers, and contemporary "third force" psychology; and the psychoanalytic model, for which the only paradigm is Freud himself. Preeminence is given to psychological paradigms, since their subject matter lies closest to the classical philosophical tradition from which "philosophical anthropology" emerged. (This book is, in the final analysis, a prolegomenon to an articulated philosophical anthropoÂ logy. ) Sociological models are also considered: the "classical" tradition from Comte to the present, and Marxist anthropology from the manuÂ scripts of 1844 to the present. The structuralist model, from Durkheim to Chomsky, is also considered, since it cuts across and gives new dimensions to all the foregoing models. The essay is, second, a phenomenological critique of these historicoÂ theoretical considerations.
<b>An insightful presentation of the key concepts, paradigms, and applications of modeling and simulation</b> <p> Modeling and simulation has become an integral part of research and development across many fields of study, having evolved from a tool to a discipline in less than two decades. <i>Modeling and Simulation Fundamentals</i> offers a comprehensive and authoritative treatment of the topic and includes definitions, paradigms, and applications to equip readers with the skills needed to work successfully as developers and users of modeling and simulation. <p> Featuring contributions written by leading experts in the field, the book's fluid presentation builds from topic to topic and provides the foundation and theoretical underpinnings of modeling and simulation. First, an introduction to the topic is presented, including related terminology, examples of model development, and various domains of modeling and simulation. Subsequent chapters develop the necessary mathematical background needed to understand modeling and simulation topics, model types, and the importance of visualization. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation, continuous simulation, and discrete event simulation are thoroughly discussed, all of which are significant to a complete understanding of modeling and simulation. The book also features chapters that outline sophisticated methodologies, verification and validation, and the importance of interoperability. A related FTP site features color representations of the book's numerous figures. <p> <i>Modeling and Simulation Fundamentals</i> encompasses a comprehensive study of the discipline and is an excellent book for modeling and simulation courses at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the fields of computational statistics, engineering, and computer science who use statistical modeling techniques.
Intended to help anyone who teaches, this book has something of a cult following. Drawing on extensive teaching experience, the author presents a personal account of good practice, written in an engaging and accessible style and based on extensive scholarly sources.
For two decades now, a social dialogue has been in progress concerning industrial relations on a European level. The publication of the first Report of the European Commission on Industrial Relations marks a significant moment: the general acceptance that European Union policy is no longer merely attempting to harmonize national regimes in this area, but focusing instead on the pursuit of such basic aims as keeping workers healthy and safe, ensuring that their interests are represented, and providing some protection from economic uncertainty.
In this book fifteen notable scholars and policymakers from six European countries explore the territory of industrial relations in Europe as it now stands. The important questions for which they provide in-depth materials include:
As a detailed analysis of current reality in the field of European industrial relations, this remarkable book is of great value to a wide range of interested parties, including academics, business people and their counsel, policymakers, government officials, and labour lawyers.
These essays were originally presented as papers at a December 2000 conference in Modena, sponsored by the Italian Industrial Relations Research Association in collaboration with the European Commission and the Centre for International and Comparative Studies in Labour Law and Industrial Relations of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia.
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