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In this groundbreaking book, Jonathan Waskan challenges cognitive science's dominant model of mental representation and proposes a novel, well-devised alternative. The traditional view in the cognitive sciences uses a linguistic (propositional) model of mental representation. This logic-based model of cognition informs and constrains both the classical tradition of artificial intelligence and modeling in the connectionist tradition. It falls short, however, when confronted by the frame problem--the lack of a principled way to determine which features of a representation must be updated when new information becomes available. Proposed alternatives, including the imagistic model, have not so far resolved this problem. Waskan proposes instead the Intrinsic Cognitive Models (ICM) hypothesis, which argues that representational states can be conceptualized as the cognitive equivalent of scale models. Waskan argues further that the proposal that humans harbor and manipulate these cognitive counterparts to scale models offers the only viable explanation for what most clearly differentiates humans from other creatures: their capacity to engage in truth-preserving manipulation of representations.
This book scrutinizes the efficiency of the statist model of "Big Government". The authors develop policy prescriptions based on Sharia rules of laissez-faire economics and perfect competition within labour and capital markets. Chapters argue that economic conditions have become increasingly unmanageable in both advanced and developing countries where "Big Government" has become a stumbling block to private enterprise. The discussion explores the idea that the elimination of interest-based debt could result in fully balanced budgets, steady external trade, risk-sharing banking, stable capital markets, and deflation. The authors propose Sharia-based policy regimes for discussion and adoption, and suggest that reforms to government size, together with the liberalisation of labour and capital markets, may present a successful and sustainable alternative mode of government.Â
Many approaches have been proposed to enhance software productivity and reliability. These approaches typically fall into three categories: the engineering approach, the formal approach, and the knowledge-based approach. The optimal gain in software productivity cannot be obtained if one relies on only one of these approaches. Thus, the integration of different approaches has also become a major area of research.
Written for the business manager of middle or senior rank who is contemplating a career move from corporate to self-employment, as well as redundant or retired executives seeking to capitalize on their experience and expertise, this book describes how to set up a consultancy practice with little financial outlay and take advantage of a growth market. Emphasis is given to the need to market the consultancy, and low-budget methods of promotion to create a client base are described. The preparation of proposals, the conduct of assignments, and the importance of presenting subsequent recommendations that will satisfy client needs and lead to recommendations and referrals is discussed. B.H. Elvy is the author of "Marketing Made Simple" and "Salesmanship Made Simple.
With case studies and examples, this book presents the performance modeling strategies and control algorithms required for the design and use of large wireless sensor networks. The authors provide an integrated framework that blends concepts from engineering, computer science, and operation research. They cover modeling wireless sensor networks, measurement processes, designing wireless sensor networks for guaranteed performance, and dynamic control of wireless sensor networks to achieve performance metrics. The book also presents numerous applications, including defense applications such as undersea surveillance, automated de-mining, search and rescue, and pursuit evasion games.
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