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The development of innovative drugs is becoming more difficult while relying on empirical approaches. This inspired all major pharmaceutical companies to pursue alternative model-based paradigms. The key question is: How to find innovative compounds and, subsequently, appropriate dosage regimens? Written from the industry perspective and based on many years of experience, this book offers: - Concepts for creation of drug-disease models, introduced and supplemented with extensive MATLAB programs - Guidance for exploration and modification of these programs to enhance the understanding of key principles - Usage of differential equations to pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and (patho-) physiologic problems thereby acknowledging their dynamic nature - A range of topics from single exponential decay to adaptive dosing, from single subject exploration to clinical trial simulation, and from empirical to mechanistic disease modeling. Students with an undergraduate mathematical background or equivalent education, interest in life sciences and skills in a high-level programming language such as MATLAB, are encouraged to engage in model-based pharmaceutical research and development.
The use of simulation modeling and analysis is becoming increasingly more popular as a technique for improving or investigating process performance. This book is a practical, easy-to-follow reference that offers up-to-date information and step-by-step procedures for conducting simulation studies. It provides sample simulation project support material, including checklists, data-collection forms, and sample simulation project reports and publications to facilitate practitioners' efforts in conducting simulation modeling and analysis projects.
Multiscale modeling is becoming essential for accurate, rapid simulation in science and engineering. This book presents the results of three decades of research on multiscale modeling in process engineering from principles to application, and its generalization for different fields. This book considers the universality of meso-scale phenomena for the first time, and provides insight into the emerging discipline that unifies them, meso-science, as well as new perspectives for virtual process engineering.
Multiscale modeling is applied in areas including:
Jinghai Li is Vice-President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), a professor at the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, and leader of the EMMS (Energy-minimizing multiscale) Group.
Wei Ge, Wei Wang, Ning Yang and Junwu Wang are professors at the EMMS Group, part of the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS.
Xinhua Liu, Limin Wang, Xianfeng He and Xiaowei Wang are associate professors at the EMMS Group, part of the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS.
Mooson Kwauk is an emeritus director of the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, and is an advisor to the EMMS Group.
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Nutrients have been recognized as essential for maximum growth, successful reproduction, and infection prevention since the 1940s; since that time, the lion's share of nutrient research has focused on defining their role in these processes. Around 1990, however, a major shift began in the way that researchers viewed some nutrients- particularly the vitamins. This shift was motivated by the discovery that modest declines in vitamin nutritional status are associated with an increased risk of ill-health and disease (such as neural tube defects, heart disease, and cancer), especially in those populations or individuals who are genetically predisposed. In an effort to expand upon this new understanding of nutrient action, nutritionists are increasingly turning their focus to the mathematical modeling of nutrient kinetic data. The availability of suitably-tagged (isotope) nutrients (such as B-carotene, vitamin A, folate, among others), sensitive analytical methods to trace them in humans (mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry), and powerful software (capable of solving and manipulating differential equations efficiently and accurately), has allowed researchers to construct mathematical models aimed at characterizing the dynamic and kinetic behavior of key nutrients in vivo in humans at an unparalleled level of detail.
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