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From the INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.
This book presents a radically new approach to problems of evaluating and optimizing the performance of continuous-time stochastic systems. This approach is based on the use of a family of Markov processes called Piecewise-Deterministic Processes (PDPs) as a general class of stochastic system models. A PDP is a Markov process that follows deterministic trajectories between random jumps, the latter occurring either spontaneously, in a Poisson-like fashion, or when the process hits the boundary of its state space. This formulation includes an enormous variety of applied problems in engineering, operations research, management science and economics as special cases; examples include queueing systems, stochastic scheduling, inventory control, resource allocation problems, optimal planning of production or exploitation of renewable or non-renewable resources, insurance analysis, fault detection in process systems, and tracking of maneuvering targets, among many others.
This book is a textbook (it includes, for example, exercises and outline solutions). The plant scientist is shown how to express physiological ideas mathematically and how to deduce quantitative conclusions, which can then be compared with experiment. There is little new biology in the book, but it is presented in a way that will be new to many biologists. The matching of models to experiments means using mathematics for formulating biological concepts and second, using algebra, calculus, or, now more frequently, computers to solve or simulate the resulting model; and finally, comparing, qualitatively or quantitatively, prediction to measurement. Computers are the important enabling technology that makes it all possible: solving equations, assembling models of increasing sophistication and complexity, and comparing theory with experiment. The book is divided into three parts. Part I. Covers subjects of wide relevance to modelling and plant biology. Part II. The reader may choose to select topics of particular interest from part II. However, the whole-plant modeller will need to study all chapters, and the plant ecosystem modeller may need to add other material also. Part III. Plant morphology is at an introductory level. It is included because morphological characters may prove to be of equal importance to some physiological traits in determining plant function and performance. "This textbook presents, in an interesting and clearly written fashion, a mathematical approach to a wide range of topics in plant and crop physiology, including light interception, leaf and canopy photosynthesis, respiration, partitioning, transpiration and water relations, branching and phyllotaxis. The biochemistry of plant growth and maintenanace is also presented in some detail. I was very pleased with the text, especially with the philosophy presented by the authors that biological models are necessarily simplifications of complex detail. I would strongly recommend it for reading and consultation by graduates and research workers." J. Exp. Botany "The authors' approach succeeds admirably, giving a thorough account of the mathematical toolbox available to researchers and the areas in which those tools have been used." Plant, Cell and Environment "Combining considerable technical cleverness with creativity and the refreshing notion that science is a "common-sense, unpredictable, fascinating and thoroughly human activity." Times Higher Educational Supplement "Exceptionally scholarly volume. Logical and systematic. Authors have assembled a mass of mathematical material in an elegant layout." Agricultural Systems
Little girls will love this 96-page coloring and activity book based on the new direct-to-DVD movie Barbie: A Fashion Fairytale. The sparkling glitter cover adds to the fun!
Preface "In aircraft design, efficiency is determined by the ability to accurately and rel- bly predict the occurrence of, and to model the development of, turbulent flows. Hence, the main objective in industrial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is to increase the capabilities for an improved predictive accuracy for both complex flows and complex geometries". This text part taken from Haase et al (2006), - scribing the results of the DESider predecessor project "FLOMANIA" is still - and will be in future valid. With an ever-increasing demand for faster, more reliable and cleaner aircraft, flight envelopes are necessarily shifted into areas of the flow regimes exhibiting highly unsteady and, for military aircraft, unstable flow behaviour. This undou- edly poses major new challenges in CFD; generally stated as an increased pred- tive accuracy whist retaining "affordable" computation times. Together with highly resolved meshes employing millions of nodes, numerical methods must have the inherent capability to predict unsteady flows. Although at present, (U)RANS methods are likely to remain as the workhorses in industry, the DESider project focussed on the development and combination of these approaches with LES methods in order to "bridge" the gap between the much more expensive (due to high Reynolds numbers in flight), but more accurate (full) LES.
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