This book gives an in-depth introduction to the areas of modeling, identification, simulation, and optimization. These scientific topics play an increasingly dominant part in many engineering areas such as electrotechnology, mechanical engineering, aerospace, and physics. This book represents a unique and concise treatment of the mutual interactions among these topics.
A smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators actively reduces the variation of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. Smart rotors feature promising load alleviation potential and might provide the technological breakthrough required by the next generation of large wind turbine rotors.
The book presents the aero-servo-elastic model of a smart rotor with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for active load alleviation and provides an insight on the rotor aerodynamic, structural and control modeling. A novel model for the unsteady aerodynamics of an air foil section with flap is presented and coupled with a multi-body structural representation. A smart rotor configuration is proposed, where the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps extend along the outer 20 % of the blade span. Linear Quadratic and Model Predictive algorithms are formulated to control the flap deflection. The potential of the smart rotor is finally confirmed by simulations in a turbulent wind field. A significant reduction of the fatigue loads on the blades is reported: the flaps, which cover no more than 1.5 % of the blade surface, reduce the fatigue load by 15 %; a combination of flap and individual pitch control allows for fatigue reductions up to 30 %.
This book offers the most complete treatment available of the Modelica language and model component libraries including a wide range of applications like mechanical systems with CAD (Computer Aided Design), virtual reality, biochemistry, and data communication. Containing improvements and fixes of the Modelica language from the previous edition, this book examines basic concepts of cyber-physical, equation-based, object-oriented system model and simulation; introduces the Modelica class concept and its use in graphical and textual modeling; explores modeling methodology for continuous, discrete, and hybrid systems; and more.
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